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There are 19 entries in this glossary.
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Term Definition
Acusto-Optic Modulator
An AO Modulator is a device that modulates and controls the intensity of an optical beam.  
A device that reduces the amplitude of an optical signal.  

Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) – A device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value. This is achieved by "shifting" the signals between stages within the device one at a time. CCDs move charge between capacitive bins in the device, with the shift allowing for the transfer of charge between bins.


Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor - CMOS technology is used in microprocessors, microcontrollers, static RAM, and other digital logic circuits. CMOS technology is also used for several analog circuits such as image sensors (CMOS sensor), data converters, and highly integrated transceivers for many types of communication. 

Dark Current
Dark current is the constant response exhibited by a receptor of radiation during periods when it is not actively experiencing radiation. In physics Dark Current refer to: The relatively small electric current that flows through a photosensitive device when no photons are entering the device. 
Diffuse reflection
Is the reflection of light from a surface such that an incident ray is reflected at many angles rather than at just one angle as in the case of specular reflection. An illuminated ideal diffuse reflecting surface will have equal luminance from all directions which lie in the half-space adjacent to the surface (Lambertian reflectance). החזרה מפוזרת  
A femtosecond is the SI unit of time equal to 10−15 of a second. 
Helium-Neon - HeNe Laser is a type of gas laser whose gain medium consists of a mixture of helium and neon inside of a small bore capillary tube, usually excited by a DC electrical discharge. The best known and most widely used HeNe laser operates at a wavelength of 632.8 nm in the red part of the visible spectrum 

The term "laser" originated as an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation , a laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. Lasers differ from other sources of light because they emit light coherently. Spatial coherence allows a laser to be focused to a tight spot, enabling applications like laser cutting and lithography. Spatial coherence also allows a laser beam to stay narrow over long distances (collimation), enabling applications such as laser pointers. Lasers can also have high temporal coherence which allows them to have a very narrow spectrum, i.e., they only emit a single color of light. Temporal coherence can be used to produce pulses of light—as short as a femtosecond. התקן הפולט אור קוהרנטי, מונוכרומטי (בתחום צר של אורכי גל) ומקביל (בעל פיזור נמוך). התופעה הודגמה לראשונה ב-16 במאי 1960 על ידי תיאודור מיימן. ההתקן משתמש באפקט הקוונטי של פליטה מאולצת, ומכאן שמו האנגלי. לאור לייזר יישומים רבים בתחומי המדע והטכנולוגיה.

Laser Diodes

A laser diode is an electrically pumped semiconductor laser in which the active medium is formed by a p-n junction of a semiconductor diode  

A picosecond is an SI unit of time equal to 10−12 of a second.  
Quantum Efficiency
(QE) – also referred to as Incident Photon to Charge Carrier Efficiency (IPCE) - indicates the ratio of the number of photons incident on a solar cell to the number of generated charge carriers. In order to understand the conversion efficiency as a function of the wavelength of light impingent on the cell, the QE/IPCE measurement is critical for materials research and cell design.  
Solar Cell
תא סולארי - תא פוטו-וולטאי (PV) הוא התקן סולארי להפקה ישירה של אנרגיה חשמלית על ידי קליטת קרינה אלקטרומגנטית (אור) מן השמש. .A solar cell (also called a photovoltaic cell) is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect  
A spectrograph is an instrument that separates an incoming wave into a frequency spectrum. There are several kinds of machines referred to as spectrographs, depending on the precise nature of the waves. The term was first used in 1884.  
ספקטרומטר אופטי הוא מכשיר מדידה אופטי לניתוח ספקטרום קרינה של גופים  

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